Brian Leiter’s Report on The 50 Best Law Faculties (Leiter的2013年美國法學院排名)

提醒:中文名稱中沒有翻譯出faculty這個詞,因為要翻也找不到適當詞彙。所以嚴格來說這是不是對於美國法學院的排名,而是對於美國法學院教授的偏好排名。先在此說明!

Brian Leiter公佈了2013年調查美國法學院教員的排名結果,首先呢,或許不應該先關注於排序結果(第一名,第二名….),而是應該要先知道這樣的排序是如何出現的!以下是前五十名的排序結果,由Havard與Yale共享第一順位。然而,雖然很多人會注意名次,我認為要更加關注的是:排序是如何產生呢?

基本上,Leiter這個調查所採用的計算方式,是稱之為Condorcet Method做偏好累加的計算規則,這是由Condorcet所創立的計算方式,一個很簡單的理解方式是:每個人可以為自己的偏好排序,然後所謂第一名的偏好則是在第一順位的排序上擊敗其他偏好的偏好。例如,10個人針對A,B,C,D,E五個偏好進行排序,然後有10人在第一順位上皆選擇B作為其第一順位。因此,B便是第一順位的Condorcet贏家(Condorcet winner)。

其次,所謂的Condorcet弔詭(Condorcet Paradox)就意味著在偏好的排序上無法產生condorcet winner的情況,換句話說就是偏好循環(我們曾經簡單說明過這個觀念的進一步延伸,例如評議弔詭書評:Group Agency等等)。偏好循環的簡單例子就是,有三個人A,B,與C針對三個偏好:牛肉麵,炸醬麵與素食麵進行偏好排序。結果是:A的偏好是:牛肉麵>炸醬麵>素食麵。B的偏好是炸醬麵>素食麵>牛肉麵。C的偏好是素食麵>牛肉麵>炸醬麵。如果我們僅比較任何兩個人,則可以得出每一排序的Condorcet Winner,但是,如果我們把三個人的偏好排序放在一起,則會變成偏好循環(preference cycles),結果會是,牛肉麵>炸醬麵,而炸醬麵>素食麵,最後素食麵>牛肉麵。那麼這種偏好的累加就變成了所謂的Condorcet Paradox。

最後,如果出現偏好循環,便必須採取其他決策規則決定特定順位的偏好是什麼,這就是completion rules(中文似乎翻譯為「終結規則」)的功能。

有了上述的基本說明之後,大概可以理解所謂第一名的意義就是Havard跟Yale在偏好排序上,是一樣的,打成平手。那麼第三名的意義在於,Stanford在與Havard的偏好排序上,212票比較「喜歡」Havard(很不精確的用法,但比較人性一點)Havard,而59票喜歡Stanford,Havard的偏好位階高於Stanford。

希望這個非常簡化的計算方式介紹,可以讓被排名遊戲所吸引的人更知道這個遊戲背後的規則以及理論意涵!如此一來,所謂的第一,第二,第三等等的,才能獲得一些更實質以及可以被反省的議題出現,而不會僅是停留在誰是第一名,誰是第二名等等很表面的想法之上。

排名結果如下:

1. Tied:

Harvard University (Not defeated in any contest vs. another choice)

Yale University (Not defeated in any contest vs. another choice)

3. Stanford University, loses to Harvard University by 212–59

4. University of Chicago, loses to Stanford University by 148–121

5. Columbia University, loses to University of Chicago by 162–103

6. New York University, loses to Columbia University by 150–107

7. University of California, Berkeley, loses to New York University by 197–63

8. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, loses to University of California, Berkeley by 160–96

9. University of Pennsylvania, loses to University of Michigan, Ann Arbor by 130–115

10. University of Virginia, loses to University of Pennsylvania by 119–118

11. Duke University, loses to University of Virginia by 187–64

12. Northwestern University, loses to Duke University by 130–121

13. Cornell University, loses to Northwestern University by 142–102

14. Georgetown University, loses to Cornell University by 137–107

15. University of California, Los Angeles, loses to Georgetown University by 143–100

16. University of Texas, Austin, loses to University of California, Los Angeles by 136–113

17. Vanderbilt University, loses to University of Texas, Austin by 170–66

18. University of Southern California, loses to Vanderbilt University by 124–87

19. Washington University, St. Louis, loses to University of Southern California by 144–68

20. George Washington University, loses to Washington University, St. Louis by 114–95

21. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis-St. Paul, loses to George Washington University by 109–92

22. Boston University, loses to University of Minnesota, Minneapolis-St. Paul by 112–82

23. Emory University, loses to Boston University by 102–90

24. University of Notre Dame, loses to Emory University by 103–93

25. University of California, Irvine, loses to University of Notre Dame by 95–93

26. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, loses to University of California, Irvine by 95–82

27. Fordham University, loses to University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign by 93–90

28. University of Wisconsin, Madison, loses to Fordham University by 92–87

29. Boston College, loses to University of Wisconsin, Madison by 91–83

30. College of William & Mary, loses to Boston College by 86–82

31. University of California, Davis, loses to College of William & Mary by 91–87

32. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, loses to University of California, Davis by 86–82

33. University of Iowa, loses to University of California, Davis by 91–77

34. Indiana University, Bloomington, loses to University of Iowa by 80–76

35. Washington & Lee University, loses to Indiana University, Bloomington by 83–66

36. George Mason University, loses to Washington & Lee University by 80–76

37. University of Alabama, loses to George Mason University by 78–73

38. Ohio State University, loses to George Mason University by 79–76

39. Florida State University, loses to Ohio State University by 78–73

40. University of San Diego, loses to Florida State University by 82–69

41. Cardozo Law School/Yeshiva University, loses to University of San Diego by 83–78

42. Arizona State University, loses to Cardozo Law School/Yeshiva University by 84–67

43. University of California, Hastings, loses to Arizona State University by 82–75

44. University of Washington, Seattle, loses to University of California, Hastings by 74–72

45. University of Arizona, loses to University of Washington, Seattle by 72–70

46. University of Colorado, Boulder, loses to University of Arizona by 79–59

47. University of Georgia, loses to University of Colorado, Boulder by 68–66

48. Brigham Young University, loses to University of Georgia by 81–47

49. Brooklyn Law School, loses to Brigham Young University by 69–67

50. Wake Forest University, loses to Brooklyn Law School by 68–67

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