Hanna Pickard on Punishment and Blame within Criminal Justice(Hanna Pickard論懲罰與責難)

剛剛看見這一個文章,是由Hanna Pickard所寫的關於對於刑事司法中對於刑事處罰中的哲學基礎的反省。在說明之前,我想先推薦!對於刑罰理論有興趣的人,應該閱讀這一篇文章。作者Hanna Pickard是一位哲學家,但同時也是精神病學的實務工作者,換言之他不僅具有理論背景,也具有反省理論的社會參與!我想這是這一篇文章具有啓發性的重要理由之一。

對於犯罪的人為何需要受到處罰,在刑罰理論中有一派被稱之為Just Desert Theories,或許可以約略稱之為應報主義。用Michael Moore的一句話就是:「Retributivism is a very straightforward theory of punishment: We are justified in punishing because and only because offenders deserve it. Moral culpability (“desert”) is in such a view both a sufficient as well as a necessary condition of liability to punitive sanctions.」簡單來說,JDT不是效益主義式的刑罰理論,而是針對犯罪者所犯下錯誤行為的道德嚴重程度給予合乎比例的處罰。

上述的理論其實很符合直覺,大多數人皆會同意。然而,Hanna Pickard卻針對這樣的想法給出了一個不一樣的哲學批判。她的基本文章論點是這樣的:

  • JDT為懲罰犯罪提供了一個證立的基礎,證成了應報的條件與限制(合乎比例等等的的)。
  • 然而,JDT卻也鼓勵,邀請以及餵養對於違犯者的情感譴責(affective blame towards offenders)。
  • Hanna Pickard認為,上述對於違犯者的感情以及性格嚴厲的批判是很普遍,但是這些對於違犯者的態度不是刑罰的必要條件。他舉了一個例子,父母處罰小孩子可以不帶有憤怒的情緒等等。
  • 由於對於違犯者的性格以及情緒上的責備是普遍聯繫於施加刑罰的例子中,因此任何刑罰理論必須對於情緒進行說明,說明情緒在刑罰的角色,地位以及功能等等。
  • 從這裡Hanna Pickard開始對於情緒(emotions)進行他的分析與說明,他運用D’Arms與Jacobsen的理論區分了兩個層次:情緒所回應對象的再現之真實性(the truth of whatever representation an emotion is responsive to)以及情緒的適切性(the appropriateness of the emotion)。
  • 從這裡Hanna Pickard開始提出他自身的理論主張:responsibility without blame model,當然這是從他身為一個實務工作者角色出發。
  • 最重要的一句話,或許是:「So it’s not only first-order emotions that can get in the way of achieving valuable moral ends. It’s equally the second-order attitude we so often take towards these first-order emotions. So here’s the pragmatic proposal. Never mind anything so radical as abolishing prisons. Instead, as a first step, let’s try to change aspects of our typical affective response to offenders – in courts, prisons, parole services, and the wider world. Perhaps we can actually learn how to avoid the first-order emotions that are presently part of our typical response – although we can’t directly decide not to feel these things, there are nonetheless ways of changing our propensities, as found in the clinic (I discussed some of these ways in the thread following the previous post, although no doubt there is more to be said). But surely we can more easily change the second-order attitude we take towards any such emotions we have – rather than insist upon the intrinsic moral appropriateness of our feelings, we can instead ask whether they are instrumentally productive to indulge and to act on given the moral (and other) ends we have.」

Hanna Pickard這一篇很值得一看,因為他不僅對於刑罰理論有著更為清楚的說明,同時他也因其作為參與者身份針對刑事司法系統提出許多深刻的觀察!強烈推薦!!

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