The Acceptance Speech of Albie Sachs(Albie Sachs的唐獎「法治獎」得獎演說)

剛剛從臉書的轉載上看見Albie Sachs法官的得獎演說,非常值得一讀!(內容主要是從宋承恩老師所轉載來的,其中文譯稿為許多老師心血討論,唐獎教育基金會將會發佈英文與中文定稿!)

PS. 我想這一段演說雖然短,但卻展現出實踐者對於基本觀念的透析力!!對於法治,Sachs法官用南非種族隔離的政策做了最顯明的註解:法治是rue of law,而非rule by law。最後,當看見freedon, bread, and rose時,腦中第一感是浮現Ken Loach的數部電影。

 

Acceptance Speech
Albie Sachs, Laureate, 2014 Tang Prize in Rule of Law
Taipei, Taiwan, September 18, 2014

It is always exciting to be the first of anything. I didn’t even know the Tang Prize existed, and was sorely tempted to delete the congratulatory message from my inbox as a scam. I’m still a bit shell-shocked. I have been singled out as an individual for doing what we have always done as a team. Moreover, we desired no reward whatsoever, other, perhaps, than the knowledge that we were contributing to human emancipation.

And yet it is quite, quite wonderful to be honoured in this way. I feel overwhelmingly proud. My role was to be in the wrong place at the right time. I feel proud of my generation, of my country.

We grew up under apartheid. Racial supremacy was guaranteed and enforced by law. We lived under rule by law, not rule of law.

Yet it was through developing a creative and people-centred view of the law that we were ultimately able to accomplish three great transformations. First, after centuries of racial oppression and conflict we managed to establish legal mechanisms that enabled us to look each other in the eye and negotiate a peaceful revolution. Second, we developed a home-grown constitutional order, deeply rooted in our own conditions, that avoided a hard choice between guaranteeing either civil and political rights or else social and economic rights. Our people didn’t want freedom without bread nor did they seek bread without freedom, they wanted both together. And since we are a country of great human diversity with a rich cultural heritage, they insisted on roses as well – Freedom, Bread and Roses.

The result is that the once-notorious land of apartheid today lives under the protective shelter of one of the most exemplary Constitutions in the world.

Many of our problems continue to be immense, others we unfortunately create anew for ourselves. But our Constitution and its Bill of Rights give us the space and the instruments to deal with them. In doing so we are guided by its foundational principles of upholding the rule of law and promoting non-racialism and non-sexism in an open and democratic society.

Pride of place is given to a comprehensive and forward-looking Bill of Rights. It ensures that the rule of law is not simply a mechanism to guarantee the wealth and power of the exalted in our society. It also affirms the right to human dignity of the landless, the homeless, the poor and the marginalised.

Certainly, the rule of law maintains its classical role of securing the independence of the judiciary, the vote and freedom of expression. It protects foreign and internal investment from arbitrary seizure. It denounces army coups. But it goes much further.

It protects people from being beaten in their homes or trafficked across frontiers, or ill-treated because they are refugees or migrants or belong to unpopular minorities or are abused by employers. It protects the rights of everyone to have reasonable access to education, housing, nutrition and health, including beneficial bio-pharmaceutical medication. It protects the Earth from voracious and damaging depletion. It protects and honours the diversity of cultures in the world. And it promotes the blossoming of many flowers of creativity and the free engagement of a multitude of ideas.

May this magnificent Prize encourage us, and all in the world, to keep our heads high as we journey arduously towards more complete justice for all.

中文翻譯:

法治獎得獎感言
Albie Sachs,2014年唐獎法治獎獲獎人
於2014年9月18 日唐獎頒獎典禮宣讀

任何事情,能夠身為第一,總是令人興奮。我原本甚至不知道唐獎的存在,當初在收件匣內看到恭喜得獎的通知時,還差點把它當成詐騙訊息刪除,到現在還是覺得有點不可思議。我獲選以個人的身分得到這個獎,實際上要歸功於眾多夥伴長久以來的努力;而我們奮鬥,從來沒有期待任何回報,只希望對人類的解放貢獻一己心力。

不過,能夠獲此殊榮,著實驕傲萬分。我不巧身處於種族壓迫之下,卻也因此得到改變體制的機會。我為我這一代感到驕傲,為我的國家感到驕傲。

我們這代在種族隔離政策下成長,當時種族至上受到法律保障,並透過法律執行。當時我們活在「依法而治」的社會,而非「法治」的社會。

但也正是透過創新的,以人為中心的法治理念,我們至終能夠達成三大改革。第一,經過數個世紀的種族壓迫與衝突,我們建立了一套法律機制,讓各方得以面對面協商,終以和平的方式獲致革命。第二,根據在地的社經條件,我們發展出深深植基南非的憲政秩序,使國民不需要在公民政治權利與社會經濟權利之間,作二選一的痛苦抉擇。我們的國民要的不是沒有麵包的自由,也不是沒有自由的麵包:他們同時要自由,也要麵包。此外,由於我們擁有繽紛多元的族群和豐富的文化傳承,我們的人民也堅持追求玫瑰般絢麗綻放的精神生活。自由、麵包和玫瑰,鼎足而立。

我們的成果是:原本惡名昭彰的種族隔離國度,如今活在全球最受推崇的憲法,所提供的保障下。

我們還有許多重大的課題尚未解決,也不幸衍生了新的問題。但是我們的憲法與人權憲章,給我們處理這些問題的空間與憑藉。我們奉行憲法基本原則的指導,崇尚法治,打破種族歧視與性別歧視,創造一個開放且民主的社會。

最值得驕傲的是,我們擁有一部保障完備且高瞻遠矚的人權憲章:它確保法治不僅僅保障上層人士的財富與權力,同時也保障無立錐之地、無殼蝸牛、貧窮困苦、及社會底層人士的尊嚴。

當然,法治的傳統角色現今仍然重要,包括保障司法獨立、保障人民的投票權與言論自由、保障外資與國內投資不受恣意侵奪、譴責武裝政變等。但法治的重要還不僅於此。

法治還保護人民在家園內不受暴力威脅,在國際間免遭人口販賣,不因身為難民、移民、或少數族裔而受虐待或雇主壓榨。法治也保障每個人都能得到合宜的教育、住居、營養與健康,包括享有生技醫藥的福利。法治保護地球免受貪婪破壞與耗竭,保障並尊重世界文化的多元,也提昇創意花朵的綻放,與多樣思想的自由交流。

願此一宏遠的獎項鼓舞我們,以及世界上所有的人,在追求正義更加普及的艱鉅路途上,昂首前進。



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