Genevieve Lakier on The Invention of Low-Value Speech(Lakier論低價值言論的發明)

Genevieve Lakier在SSRN上面發表了一篇文章:The Invention of Low-Value Speech,挑戰傳統以來美國「傳統」對於言論自由保障的區分:高價值言論與低價值言論之差異。這組區分一般認為是美國憲法第一修正案在批准時的基礎想法。然而,Genevieve Lakier透過歷史文獻的回顧,挑戰這一個根深蒂固的想法。文章真是很長,簡單來說就是,對於何種言論內容受到第一修正案的保障(也就是對於言論範疇的討論)約是從新政(the New Deal)開始的:It was during this period that a majority of justices on the Court adopted for the first time the new understanding of freedom of speech that Justices Holmes and Brandeis had been promoting, largely in dissent, since the teens and twenties, and that free speech activists had been promoting even earlier than that. In contrast to the more interventionist eighteen and nineteenth century view, this new conception of freedom of speech imposed strong constraints on the government’s ability to punish speech after the fact. Rather than empowering the government to protect liberty by routing out what eighteenth and nineteenth-century courts generally described as “licentiousness,” proponents of this view instead argued that the guarantees of speech and press freedom limited the government’s ability to decide what was or was not in fact licentious. 推薦閱讀!

Lakier的文章真是很長,如果對於新政時期如何轉向討論言論的內容與第一修正案的關係,可以從29頁開始看起。而Andrew Koppelman在Balkinization中的簡短介紹,可以作為一個很不錯的出發點(按此閱讀,但是最後幾句話或許有討論空間)!



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